There are different types of aphasia, and it is essential to know the difference between them in order to find the right solution for anyone affected by this disease
1. A lesion in the left hemisphere of the brain
Our brain manages a large number of complex information and behaviours: vision, feelings, movement, memorization, decision-making, or even language. If we are more particularly interested in language, we realize that, in a large majority of the population, the areas dedicated to language are located in the left hemisphere of the brain.
>Two main areas are often mentioned:
- Broca's area: which is located in the anterior part of the brain, is known to process information related to expression.
- Wernicke's area: which is located in the posterior part of the brain, is known to process information related to understanding.
If an injury occurs in any of these areas, such as a stroke, it can cause a language disorder, called aphasia.However, a lesion rarely affects only one area of the brain: adnexal areas are often affected , such as those responsible for movement.The left hemisphere controls the right hemisphere while the right hemisphere controls the left hemisphere. So if the left hemisphere is affected by a brain injury, the person may also have partial or complete paralysis of the right part of the body (leg, arm, face).
2. The 4 different kinds of aphasia
- Broca's aphasia or expression aphasia (nonfluent): 2 third of aphasia : the individual speaks little, more slowly and looks for words. This is where Vocalyx comes in most often. Indeed, a large part of people with Broca's aphasia suffer from not being able to interact with their entourage , while they maintain a good understanding of what is said around them need a voice to express their desires, needs and opinions . Vocalyx is the tool that allows them to select or compose the desired message, then to activate the synthesized voice of the device to communicate it to the entourage.
- Wernicke aphasia or (fluent) reception aphasia it is characterized by significant difficulties in understanding what is said or written. On the other hand, a person with Wernicke's aphasia will speak a lot, in a disjointed way and often inappropriate to the context around him/her (he/she will even use "non-words" or "jargon" giving the impression that he/she is using his/her own language). Attention, this person, in the majority of the cases, is not conscious of his disorder.
- Mixed aphasia there is both a reduction in expression and significant comprehension difficulties.
- Global aphasia : it is the most disabling form of aphasia; expression is almost nil and comprehension disorders are important.
We have presented above the main cases of aphasia but there are still many subtleties that we have not stated here. Many health professionals can diagnose and accompany different aphasia: neuropsychologists, neurologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, psychomotricists and others.